Hydrocephalus is an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain.  CSF is a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and in healthy quantities has a number of benefits including:

  • Acts as a cushion/shock absorber
  • Delivers nutrients to the brain and removes waste
  • Helps to maintain intracranial blood volume

In excessive amounts however CSF may lead to potentially harmful pressure on the brain.


  • Headache followed by vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Sun setting of the eyes
  • Problems with balance or coordination
  • Gait (walking) disturbance,
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Slowing or loss of developmental progress
  • Lethargy, drowsiness, irritability, or other changes in personality or cognition including memory loss.

Diagnosis may include:

  • Clinical neurological evaluation
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Intracranial Pressure-monitoring


Hydrocephalus is most often treated with a shunt that diverts the flow of CSF from the central nervous system to another area of the body where it can be absorbed as part of the normal circulatory process.  NeuroTexas neurosurgeons are trained to treat and have vast experience in treating hydrocephalus.


References: National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke, American Association of Neurological Surgeons.

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